Citizen Subjects: Photography, Race and Belonging in Canada

The front page of The Clarion newspaper from 1947, featuring a photograph of the Prevoe family.
Monday, November 27, 2017 - 12:00pm to 1:00pm

In this talk, Gabrielle Moser discusses her current research project that analyzes how racialized subjects pictured themselves as citizens around 1947, the date that Canada’s first citizenship laws were enacted. Through extensive research in local and state archives, this project aims to analyze how viewers recognize citizens through modes of photographic self-presentation.

 

Gabrielle Moser is a writer, educator and independent curator. Her writing appears in venues including Artforum.com, Canadian Art, Journal of Visual Culture, Photography & Culture, and Prefix Photo. Moser has held fellowships at the Paul Mellon Centre for the Study of British Art, the Ryerson Image Centre, the University of British Columbia and was a Fulbright Visiting Scholar at Brown University in 2017. She holds a PhD from the art history and visual culture program at York University in Toronto, Canada and is an Assistant Professor in art history at OCAD University.

Research Rendezvous is a series for faculty and students to share and learn about research at OCAD U. Light refreshments will be available.
Presented by the Office of Research and Innovation

 

Venue & Address: 
Room 701K, 205 Richmond St. West
Website: 
https://www2.ocadu.ca/research/gmoser/project/citizen-subjects-photography-race-and-belonging-in-canada
Email: 
research@ocadu.ca
The event poster

Citizen Subjects: Photography, Race and Belonging in Canada

When Canada’s first citizenship laws came into effect in 1947, photography had already been representing this mode of belonging in the country for more than 50 years. Citizen Subjects explores this unique context that allowed Canadian citizenship to emerge as a subject of photography long before it became a legal category. Building on research conducted in local, municipal, and national archives from coast to coast, this multi-year research project explores the intersections of photography, race, and citizenship, testing the promises—and limitations—of visual representation in securing identities and rights.

PROJECT OBJECTIVES: 

  • To source representations of racialized subjects in local, municipal and state archives in the lead up to 1947 and to analyze the visual vocabulary that subjects used to present themselves to the camera as citizens;
  • To evaluate how photographic claims to citizenship in Canada participated in global and transnational understandings of citizenship around 1948, a period of intense activity around de-colonial, civil rights and nationalist independence movements;
  • To engage recent debates about citizenship, race, and photography by problematizing these terms’ historical conjunction with colonialism;
  • To disseminate findings through a one day public symposium at OCAD in Fall 2018, an exhibition at Gallery 44 and Critical Distance in Toronto in Spring 2019, journal publications, conference presentations, pedagogical activities, and an online archive;
  • To visualize the effects of changes to citizenship and immigration law, with the potential to inform Canadian policy formation. 

Comprising exhibitions, scholarly articles, a series of newly commissioned public installations, and an interactive website that allows users to build a visual vocabulary of citizenship, this interdisciplinary project invites audiences to think critically about questions of belonging in and around Canada’s sesquicentennial year. How did subjects use the camera to make claims for equality as citizens before the law offered them any such protections? What are the gestures, expressions, poses, and modes of dress that we recognize as performances of citizenship? How were race and citizenship imagined, and pictured, alongside one another?

Citizen Subjects is framed around an important date in thinking about the history of visuality and citizenship it Canada, focusing on the period leading up to the enactment of Canada’s first citizenship laws in 1947. These were, somewhat unbelievably, the first citizenship laws in the British Empire. The period between the end of the Second World War and the start of the Cold War is important for thinking about Canada’s relationship to global and transnational politics, because it marks a host of other nationalist and de-colonial movements happening worldwide, including the passing of the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Man, the partition of India and Pakistan, the start of apartheid in South Africa, and the destruction of Palestine and the creation of the state of Israel. Examining race and citizenship between 1946 and 1948 therefore illuminates how Canadian visual culture participates in global and transnational movements, and also forces the spectres of the transatlantic slave trade and settler colonialism—two global processes foundational to twentieth century politics—to come back into the frame of how we picture belonging in Canada.

In a contemporary moment marked by increasing restrictions on citizen rights, such as the recent cap on Syrian refugees permitted into Canada, public debates about the global refugee crisis, and political movements such as Idle No More and Black Lives Matter, the project of building a visual vocabulary of citizenship takes on political urgency for a wide range of audiences in Canada. By examining how citizenship appears in photographs, Citizen Subjects develops critical knowledge about why certain subjects continue to be left out of legal framings of citizenship and builds the public’s visual literacy for recognizing current claims to citizenship by immigrant communities, people of colour, and Indigenous subjects.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES:
Timeline of World Events (1947-48)
Blog post about in-progress research
Classroom on “Spectatorship, race and citizenship” (Video program curated by Gabrielle Moser)
Instudio Article "Picturing Race and Citizenship — with Dr. Gabrielle Moser" by Heather Beaumont"

This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

Creator: 
Image of gloved hands handling photograph.
SSHRC Logo
Monday, September 25, 2017 - 12:00pm
Lab Member: 
Gabrielle Moser
Embed Video: 

MMMMM…. Gendai Kitchen: A deliciously innovative curatorial concept

In the summer of 2016, Gendai Gallery — a Toronto institution with a focus on the intersection of East Asian perspectives and diverse cultures— launched the experimental culinary project MMMMM… Gendai Kitchen. This initiative presents programming that aligns itself with the seasons and focuses on a different natural food source in each iteration, or case in point: spring featuring sugar, summer featuring rock, fall featuring seed, and winter featuring salt. Two artists have been assigned to produce content for each season, and with OCAD U alumni including Myung-Sun Kim, Lisa Myers and Stuart Sakai on board, the results have been delectable.

 Summer: Lisa Myers with Myung-Sun Kim, miijim for time beings, 2016. Photo by Morris Lum. 

The program’s curators, Emily Fitzpatrick and Maiko Tanaka, have brought something refreshingly original to Toronto’s art scene. The concept includes more familiar offerings, such as artist-hosted meals, but also a subscription service. Subscribers receive an artist’s multiple for every season of the year, delivered right to their front doors! The multiples are created as collaborative pairings with the artist-hosted presentations in order to highlight and explore the multiple, which enhances the presentation, and vice-versa. For example, in the winter iteration of the project, Mitchell Akiyama’s multiple Elements of Exchange — a collection of synthetically crafted salts mimicking those found in bodily fluids, such as sweat and tears — was used in the food prepared by Stuart Sakai in his workshop Salt of the Body.

 

Fall: Diane Borsato, ALL OUR FLOURISHING IS MUTUAL, 2016. Photo by Morris Lum. 

The subscription, limited to just 50, is enticingly exclusive, and yet accessible. The price tag for this four-piece artwork delivery service is a mere $250. Furthermore, if the cost of a year-long membership is still out of reach, the programming around the multiples is free to all. Not only are the events free, but they also take place in various locations such as Artscape Gibraltar Point and the Theatre Centre, which engage and bring together different communities from across the city.

 

Winter: Mitchell Akiyama, Elements of Exchange, 2017. Photo by Jacob Pojar.

Beyond its creative and accessible format, MMMMM… Gendai Kitchen is also vanguard because of the ideas it tackles. The five Ms of MMMMM… Gendai Kitchen function as both a clever onomatopoeia and acronym. According to the prospectus, the Ms stand for Mapping, Myth, Mobility, Magic and Migration, and together act as “maxims for a deeper, complicated and historical engagement with contemporary food politics, economy and place.” For example, Diane Borsato’s event ALL OUR FLOURISHING IS MUTUAL (BREAD AND HONEY) at The Drake Hotel served up a sampling of five honeys produced throughout the GTA, which revealed distinct flavour variations among products from different neighbourhoods and beekeepers. The presentation encouraged visitors to reflect on the movements of flora and fauna throughout the city, the potential to integrate oneself into the ecosystem in a healthy way, and what one can learn from eating locally.

 

Winter: Mitchell Akiyama, Elements of Exchange, 2017. Photo by Jacob Pojar.

Although three seasons have already passed, it’s not too late to experience spring with Gendai Kitchen. The upcoming season will celebrate the motif of sugar with an event by Lesley Loksi Chan, and a multiple by Karen Tam. For more information please visit www.gendaikitchen.squarespace.com.

 

Author: 
By Emily Cluett, MFA, Criticism and Curatorial Practice, 2017
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