Photograph of B. Lynne Milgram
lmilgram@faculty.ocadu.ca
Photograph of B. Lynne Milgram
B. Lynne Milgram
Professor
Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Graduate Studies
416-977-6000, Ext. 403
lmilgram@faculty.ocadu.ca

Area(s) of Expertise

Gender, development, material culture, Philippines, urbanization, Social Entrepreneurship, alternative transnational economies

Overview

Lynne Milgram’s research is rooted in gender studies and anthropology, but lends itself to interdisciplinary collaborations of all kinds. Analyzing the commoditization of indigenous craft production and trade in Ifugao province, northern Philippines, Milgram’s doctoral research analyzed the criteria women use to determine their differential engagement in cultivation and craft-making activities and whether to produce market-oriented or for-local-use textiles and baskets. Subsequently investigating the socioeconomic and political impacts of microfinance development projects mounted throughout the Philippines, Milgram explored the relationship between the institutional claim to empowerment and the capacity of microfinance program structures to generate “real” opportunities for women. Pursuing these issues but with regard to emergent spheres of women’s work, Milgram has analyzed Philippine women’s engagement in the growing global trade and consumption of secondhand clothing, specifically that between the Philippines and Hong Kong, and women’s work as street vendors. Both enterprises straddle formal/informal and legal/illegal practice and are growing arenas of labour and livelihood given increasing rural-to-urban migration and the lack of formal-sector jobs.

Milgram’s current research continues to problematize the concepts of “informality” and “extralegality” by investigating transformations of urban public space use regarding public market modernization and food provisioning systems in Baguio City, Philippines, and alternative transnational economic practices between the Philippines and Toronto, Canada. Milgram is working, for example, with small-scale Filipino-Canadian social entrepreneurs in Toronto who import high quality and “ethically-produced” artisanal products from the Philippines; and in the northern Philippines, she is investigating social enterprise initiatives in the country’s emergent Arabica coffee industry. In 2017, Milgram documented some of her alternative transnational economy research in the video – “Gift-Commodity Conversations in a Transnational Philippine Market Trade.” In each of her research projects, Milgram argues that women operationalize multiple work options to simultaneously negotiate their positions as sites of globally competitive economic activity and local struggles over state restructuring. Milgram makes her findings applicable for policy formation by government and non-government organizations seeking to sustain livelihood opportunities for women via a range of appropriate initiatives.

Click here to view Milgram's 2017 video "Gift-Commodity Conversations in a Transnational Philippine Market Trade".

Education

1997 PhD, Department of Social Anthropology, York University Dissertation: “Crossover, Continuity and Change: Women's Production and Marketing of Crafts in the Upland Philippines."

1991 MA, Graduate Program in Interdisciplinary Studies, York University Thesis: “The Textiles of Highland Luzon, Philippines: A Case Study in Material Culture.”

1971 BA, English Literature, University of Toronto.

Professional Experience

ACADEMIC

2003-present Professor of Anthropology, Faculty of Liberal Studies, OCAD University, Toronto, ON.

2001-2003 Associate Professor, Faculty of Liberal Studies, OCAD University, Toronto, ON.

1991-2001 Lecturer, part-time & contract, Faculty of Design and Faculty of Liberal Studies, OCAD, Toronto, ON.

1997-2001 Sessional Lecturer, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

1997-1999 Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

1992-1997 Teaching Assistant, Department of Social Anthropology, York University, Toronto, ON.

1993 & 1999 Sessional Lecturer, School of Craft and Design, Sheridan College, Oakville, ON.

1985 - 1988 Sessional Lecturer, Faculty of Craft and Design, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, Halifax, NS.

HONORARY APPOINTMENTS

Cordillera Studies Center, University of the Philippines, Baguio

York Centre of Asian Research, York University, Toronto

World Cultures, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto

CURATORIAL

1989 - 1993 Curator, Contemporary Gallery, Textile Museum of Canada, Toronto, ON.

1980- 2003  Curator, Asian ethnographic textiles (part-time and contract), Textile Museum of Canada, Toronto, ON. Selected Exhibitions include: 2003 Islands of Embellishment: Transforming Traditions in Philippine Textiles. Exhibition Brochure; 1998 Reclaiming the Past: Historical Traditions in Textile Reuse. In Spin-Cycle: Reclaimed and Reinterpreted: Global Trends and Traditions in Textile Recycling. Co-Curator. Exhibition Brochure; 1995 Japanese Innovations: The Textiles of Junichi Arai; 1993 Narratives in Cloth: Embroidered Textiles from Aomori, Japan. Exhibition Catalogue; 1991 Helen Frances Gregor: Cloth and Architecture – A Retrospective. Exhibition Brochure; 1989 Directions: from historical sources. Exhibition Catalogue.

VISUAL ARTS STUDIO

1987-1992 Part-time Instructor, Masters Weavers Program, Ontario Guild of Handweavers and Spinners.

1988 - 1990 Part-time Instructor, Haliburton School of Fine Arts, Haliburton, ON.

1979-1988 Part-time Instructor, North York Board of Education, Toronto, ON. Textile arts classes for students and teachers with the OAC Artists in the Schools Program.

1979-1988 Part-time Instructor, University of Toronto, Faculty of Art Education, Toronto, ON.

1984 - 1986 Part-time Instructor, York University, Faculty of Art Education, Toronto, ON.

 

Selected Exhibitions

2003 Islands of Embellishment: Transforming Traditions in Philippine Textiles. Toronto: Textile Museum of Canada.

1998 Reclaiming the Past: Historical Traditions in Textile Reuse. In Spin-Cycle: Reclaimed and Reinterpreted: Global Trends and Traditions in Textile Recycling. Co-Curator. Toronto: Museum for Textiles. Exhibition Brochure.

1993 Narratives in Cloth: Embroidered Textiles from Aomori, Japan. Toronto: Museum for Textiles.

1991 Helen Frances Gregor: Cloth and Architecture – A Retrospective. Toronto: Museum for Textiles.

1989 Directions: from historical sources. Contemporary Gallery. Toronto: Museum for Textiles.

Awards \ Grants

2015-2019 SSHRC 'Insight' Grant. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Co-applicant. 'Alternative Transnational Economies (ATE): Exploring the Progressive Potential of Canada-Philippines Migrant Connections'.

2014 SSHRC Institutional Grant, awarded by OCAD University Faculty Grant. 'From Market to Market: Filipino-Canadian Entrepreneurs Refashion Transnational Business Landscapes.'

2014 SAW Book Prize, awarded by the Society of the Anthropology of Work for the publication Street Economies in the Urban Global South, Karen Tranberg Hansen, Walter E. Little, B. Lynne Milgram, editors. Sante Fe, NM: SAR Press.

2014 Residency Fellowship, Max Planck Research Institute of Social Anthropology, Halle, Germany.

2014-2015 Visiting Professor Fellowship, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City, College of Social Sciences

2012-2016 SSHRC 'Insight' Research Grant, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Principal Investigator with co-applicant. 'Contested Livelidhoods: Food Provisioning Systems in Urban Southeast Asia.'

2011 School for Advanced Research (SAR), Sante Fe, NM. Advanced Seminar Series Program, 2010-2011, (Co-applicant), 'Street Economics, Politics and Social Movements in the Urban Global South.'

2009 Nominated for the OCAD 2008/2009 Price Award for Excellence in Teaching.

2008-2011 SSHRC Standard Research Grant, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Principal Investigator with co-applicant. 'Exploring Urban Resistance: street vending and negotiations over public space livelihoods in the Philippines and Vietnam.'

2008-2009 OCAD Award for Distinguished Research and Creation. OCAD University, Toronto.

2007 R. L. Shep Textile Book Award. Awarded by the Textile Society of America (in 2008) for the publication, 'Material Choices: Refashioning Bast and Leaf Fibres in Asia and the Pacific', (co-edited with R. W. Hamilton), Los Angeles: Fowler Museum at UCLA.

2004-2007 SSHRC Standard Research Grant, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. PI. 'Women and the Sourcing, Circulation and Consumption of Secondhand Clothing in the Philippines and Hong Kong.'

2000-2003 SSHRC Standard Research Grant, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. PI. 'Women and Microfinance Development in the Northern Philippines.'

2001 Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). (Collaborator for Microfinance Research). 'WASTE-ECON: The Waste Economy in Mainland South-East Asia.' Department of Geography and Planning, University of Toronto.

1997-1999 SSHRC Post-Doctoral Fellowship, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto. 'Alternative Economies and Women’s Craft Cooperatives in the Philippine Cordillera.'

1997 Harold K. Schneider Prize in Economic Anthropology, Graduate Student Paper Competition, Awarded by the Society for Economic Anthropology.

1993-1996 SSHRC Doctoral Fellowship, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

1994 Canada/ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Academic Support Program.

1990 & 1993 Ontario Graduate Scholarship, Ontario Ministry of Education.

1988 Rita K. Teetzel Fellowship for Graduate Studies, University of Toronto.

Commissions

N/A

Selected Publications

BOOKS:

2013 Street Economies in the Urban Global South. Co-edited with Karen Tranberg Hansen and Walter E. Little. Sante Fe, NM: SAR Press.

2009 Economics and Morality: Anthropological Approaches. Co-edited with Katherine E. Browne. Landham, MD: Altamira Press.

2007 Material Choices: Refashioning Bast and Leaf Fibers in Asia and the Pacific. Co-edited with Roy W. Hamilton. Los Angeles, CA: Fowler Museum at UCLA.

2000 Artisans and Cooperatives: Developing Alternative Trade for the Global Economy. Co-edited with Kimberly M. Grimes. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

1994 The Transformative Power of Cloth in Southeast Asia. Co-edited with Penny Van Esterik. Montreal, QC: Canadian Asian Studies Association.

ARTICLES:

(forthcoming) Gift-Commodity Entanglements: (In)Formalizing Regulation in a Transnational Philippine Market Trade. Anthropologica  (Special Issue: “Moving beyond the formal/informal dichotomy: Implications for governance.” Martijn Koster and Alan Smart, guest eds.).

2017 Recrafting in/formality, leveraging public market trade in Baguio, Philippines. Anuac 6 (2): 29-34. (Special Issue: “In/Formalization.” Josephine Smart, Alan Smart, and Felipo Zerilli, guest eds.).

2015 From Street to Store to Shopping Mall: Extralegal Zones of Commerce for Pirated Audio-Visual Goods in the Philippines. SOJOURN: Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 30 (3): 742-779. (Special Issue on Legality and lllegality in Asia, Kirsten Endres, guest ed.).

2015 Unsettling Urban Marketplace Redevelopment in Baguio City, Philippines. Economic Anthropology 1 (2): 77-89. (Special issue: “The Economy of Cities,” Dolores Koeing and Ty Matejowsky, guest eds.).

2014 Food Provisioning and Wholesale Agricultural Commodity Chains in Northern Vietnam. (co-authored with Jonathan Gerber and Sarah Turner). Human Organization 73 (1): 50-61.

2014 Remapping the Edge: Informality and Legality in the Harrison Road Night Market, Baguio City, Philippines. City & Society 26 (2): 155-178. (Special issue: “Norms, Networks, and Informality in the Urban Global South: Unmapping Regulatory Space." B. Lynne Milgram and Walter E. Little, guest eds.).

2012 Tangled Fields: Rethinking Positionality and Ethics in Women’s Work in a Hong Kong-Philippine Trade. Critical Arts 26 (2): 175-191. (Special Issue: “Fieldwork Ethics.” Andrew Causey, guest ed.).

2012 Reconfiguring Margins: Secondhand Clothing and Street Vending in the Philippines. TEXTILEJournal of Cloth and Culture 10 (2): 200-221. (Special Issue: “Recycling,” L. Norris, guest ed.).

2011 Refiguring Space, Mobilizing Livelihood: Street Vending and Legality in the Philippines. Journal of Developing Societies 27 (3 & 4): 261-293 (Special Issue: “Megacities/ Urban Subjects in Global South Geographies of Space and Knowledge,” Faissel Demissie, guest ed.).

2010 From Trash to Totes: Recycled Production and Cooperative Economy Practice in the Philippines. Human Organization 69 (1): 75-85.

2008 Activating Frontier Livelihoods: Women and the Transnational Secondhand Clothing Trade between Hong Kong and the Philippines. Urban Anthropology 37 (1): 5-47.

2005 From Margin to Mainstream: Microfinance, Women’s Work and Social Change in the Philippines. Urban Anthropology 34 (4): 45-84.

2005 Piña Cloth, Identity and the Project of Philippine Nationalism. Asian Studies Review 29: 265-278.

2004 Refashioning Commodities: Women and the Sourcing and Circulation of Secondhand Clothing in the Philippines. Anthropologica. 46 (2): 123-136.

2002 Banking on Bananas, Crediting Crafts: Financing Women’s Work in the Philippine Cordillera. Atlantis: A Women’s Studies Journal 26 (2): 109-119.

2001 Operationalizing Microfinance: Women and Craftwork in Ifugao, Upland Philippines. Human Organization 60 (3): 212-224.

1999 Crafts, Cultivation and Household Economies: Women's Work and Positions in the Northern Philippines. Research in Economic Anthropology 20: 221-261.

CHAPTERS:

(forthcoming) Informality and Advocacy in Urbanizing Northern Philippine Cities: Baguio and Dagupan. (co-written with Ty Matejowsky). In Routledge Handbook of Urbanization in Southeast Asia. Rita Padawangi, ed. London and New York: Routledge

(under review) What Happens when we Take the Street out of Street Foods? (Re)Fashioning Philippine Street Foods and Vending. In The City Street Food Reader., Noah Allison and Krishnendu Ray, eds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

2018 Challenging Form Follows Capital: The Resilience of Urban Fresh Food Provisioning Systems in Baguio City, Philippines. In Cities by and for the People. Yves Cabannes, Michael Douglass, and Rita Padawangi, eds., Amsterdam, NL: University of Amsterdam Press.

2018 Informality and Legality in Women’s Livelihoods in Baguio City. In Routledge Handbook on Contemporary Philippine Culture and Political Economy. Mark Thompson and Eric V. Batalla, eds., 284-306. London and New York: Routledge.

2015 Refashioning a Global Craft Commodity Flow from the Central Philippines. In Critical Craft: Technology, Globalization, and Capitalism. Clare Wilkinson Weber and Alicia DeNicola, eds., 169-186. London: Bloomsbury Publishers.

2013 Taking the Street into the Market: The Politics of Space and Work in Baguio City, Philippines. In Street Economies in the Urban Global South. Karen Tranberg Hansen, Walter E. Little and B. Lynne Milgram, eds., 71-92.  Sante Fe: NM: School of Advanced Research Press.

2013 Introduction: Street Economies in the Urban Global South. Co-authored with K. T. Hansen and W. E. Little. In Street Economies in the Urban Global South. Karen Tranberg Hansen, Walter E. Little and B. Lynne Milgram, eds., 3-16. Sante Fe: NM: School of Advanced Research Press.

2012 From Secondhand Clothing to Cosmetics: Philippine-Hong Kong Entrepreneurs Capture Gaps in Cross-Border Trade. In Economic Globalization from Below. Gordon Mathews, Gustavo Rubeiro, Carlos Vega, eds., 120-137. London & New York: Routledge.
(2015 – Translated into Spanish In La globalización desde abajo. La otra economía mundial. Alba Vega, C. , Gordon Mathews and Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, editors. México, El Colegio de México – Fondo de Cultura Económica.)    

2011 ReCommunitizing Practice, Refashioning Capital: Artisans and Entrepreneurship in a Philippine Textile Industry. In Textile Economies: Power and Value from the Local to the Transnational. Walter E. Little and Patricia McAnay, eds., 223-243. Landham, MD: Altamira.

2010 Reclaiming Materials and Fashion-Work in the Urban Philippines. In The Force of Fashion in Politics and Society: Global Perspectives from Early Modern to Contemporary Times. Beverly Lemire, ed., 191-213. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

2009 Negotiating Urban Activism: Women, Vending and the Transformation of Streetscapes in the Urban Philippines. In Dissent and Cultural Resistance in Asia’s Cities. Melissa Butcher and Selvaraj Velayutham, editors, 110-127. London & NY: Routledge.

2007 Recrafting Tradition and Livelihood: Women and Bast Fiber Textiles in the Upland Philippines. In Material Choices: Refashioning Bast and Leaf Fibers in Asia and the Pacific. Roy W. Hamilton and B. Lynne Milgram, editors, 119-131. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum at UCLA.

2005 Fair(er) Trade for the Global Economy: Capitalizing on Alternatives in Crafts in the Rural Philippines. In Petty Capitalists: Flexibility, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. Alan Smart and Josephine Smart, editors, 227-251. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

2005 Ukay-Ukay Chic: Tales of Secondhand Clothing Fashion and Trade in the Philippine Cordillera. In Old Clothes, New Looks: Secondhand Fashion. Alexandra Palmer and Hazel Clark, editors, 135-153. Oxford and New York: Berg.

2004 Crafts, Gifts and Capital: Negotiating Philippine Credit Relations. In Values and Valuables From the Sacred to the Symbolic. Cynthia Werner and Duran Bell, editors, 158-184. Landham, MD: Altamira Press.

2003 Women, Modernity and the Global Economy: Negotiating Work and Economic Difference in Ifugao, Upland Philippines. In Gender at Work in Economic Life, Gracia Clark, editor, 95-114. Landham, MD: Altamira Press.

2001 Situating Handicraft Market Women in Ifugao, Upland Philippines: A Case for Multiplicity. In Women Traders in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Mediating Identities, Marketing Wares. Linda J. Seligmann, ed., 129-160. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

2000 Reorganizing Production for Global Markets: Women and Craft Cooperatives in Ifugao, Upland Philippines. In Artisans and Cooperatives: Developing Alternative Trade for the Global Economy. Kimberly M. Grimes and B. Lynne Milgram, eds., 107-128. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

2000 Introduction: Facing the Challenges of Artisan Production in the Global Market. Co-authored with Kimberly M. Grimes. In Artisans and Cooperatives: Developing Alternative Trade for the Global Economy. Kimberly M. Grimes and B. Lynne Milgram, eds., 3-10. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

1998 Making and Marketing Contemporary Baskets in Ifugao, Upland Philippines. In Basketry of the Luzon Cordillera, Philippines. Roy W. Hamilton, ed., 52-68. Los Angeles, CA: Fowler Museum at UCLA.

1998 Craft Production and Household Practices in the Rural Philippines. InTransgressing Borders:Critical Perspectives on Household, Gender and Culture. Lynne Phillips and Suzan Ilcan, eds., 169-188. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey Publishers, Inc.

1997 Linking the Local to the Global: Women and the Diversification of Crafts in the Upland Philippines. In L'Asie du Sud-Est Face à la Mondialisation: Les Nouveaux Champs  D'Analyse/Southeast Asia and Globalization: New Domains of Analysis. Rodolphe De Konnick and Christine Veilleux. Eds., 111-118. Laval, QC: Université Laval.

1994 (Re)Production: A Feminist Perspective on the Significance of Household Textile Production in Highland Luzon. In The Transformative Power of Cloth in Southeast Asia. Lynne Milgram and Penny Van Esterik, eds., 87-101.  Montréal, QC: Canadian Asian Studies Association.

1994 Introduction: Contextualizing Southeast Asian Textiles. Co-author with Penny Van Esterik. In The Transformative Power of Cloth in Southeast Asia. Lynne Milgram and Penny Van Esterik, eds., 1-9. Montréal & Toronto: Canadian Asian Studies Association.

VIDEO, ENCYCLOPEDIA, TRADE JOURNAL ENTRIES AND JURIED CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

2017 Gift-Commodity Conversations in a Transnational Philippine Market Trade. (9.42 minute video production for the project: Philippine-Canada Alternative Transnational Economies).

2010 The Trade and Consumption of Secondhand Clothing in the Philippines. Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion – South and Southeast Asia volume, Jasleen Dhamija, editor. 452-454. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

2010 Revival of Piña Cloth: Southern Luzon and Central Philippines. Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion – South and Southeast Asia volume, Jasleen Dhamija, editor. 455-456. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

2007 Materializing the Philippines: Artisans, Tourism and Border Zones of Cultural Production. Conference proceedings: Things That Move: The Material Worlds of Tourism and Travel. Centre for Tourism and Cultural Change, Leeds Metropolitan University, July 19-23, 2007.

2007 Developing Work Alternatives in the Philippines. Anthropology News, (Society for the Anthropology of Work column) (May 2007): 58-59.

1996 (Re)Situating Ceremonial Textiles in Ifugao, Upland Philippines. In Sacred and Ceremonial Textiles: Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Symposium of The Textile Society of America, 288-298. Washington, DC: Textile Society of America.

1992 Experience and Identity in Cloth: Highland Philippine Textiles of the Early 20th Century. In Textiles in Daily Life. Selected Proceedings of the Textile Society of America, Third Biennial Symposium, 139-150. Washington, DC: Textile Society of America.

Professional Affiliations / Boards / Juries

CURRENT

2014-present Committee Reviewer. Rhoda Halperin Pre-Dissertation Award. Society for Economic Anthropology (SEA).

2012-present   Committee Member. Acquisitions Committee. Textile Museum of Canada, Toronto, ON.

2008-present  Executive Board Secretary for Society for the Anthropology of Work (SAW), part of the American Anthropological Association.

2002-present  Research Affiliate, Asian Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

1997-present  Research Associate, World Cultures, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON.

1995-present, Research Associate, Cordillera Studies Center, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City, Philippines.

1980-present Adjunct Curator for Asian Textiles, Textile Museum of Canada, Toronto, ON.

PAST

2013-2017 Board Member. Society for Economic Anthropology (SEA).

2008-2015  Executive Board Secretary for Society for the Anthropology of Work (SAW).

2003-2008  Committee Chair for the Harold K. Schneider Graduate and Undergraduate Student Paper Prize, Society for Economic Anthropology (SEA), part of the American Anthropological Association.

2002-2016  Research Affiliate, Asian Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

2002-2010  Committee Member, Veronica Gervers Fellowship Committee, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON.

1999-2015 Board Member, American Philippine Studies Group, Association for Asian Studies.

1994-2000 Board Representative for Canada, Textile Society of America.

 

External Grant Examiner: SSHRC (2007, 2009, 2012, 2013, 2015); Australian Development Research Awards (2008); Getty Foundation Publication Award (2001); National Science Foundation (NSF) (2016).

External Ph.D. Evaluation: University of Technology Sydney (2008).

External Manuscript Reviews (selected): American Ethnologist, Anthropologica, Human Organization, Identities, Pacific Affairs, Journal of Marxism and Interdisciplinary Studies, Textile History, Research in Economic Anthropology, The Cordillera Review, Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Canadian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, Urban Anthropology.