The Entangled Gaze: Indigenous and European Views of Each Other

Sea Captain Figure, c. 1840. Haida, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Argillite, ivory, 46.8 x 13.5 x 8 cm. Purchased with Funds from the Estate of Mary Eileen Ash, 2008. Image © 2017 Art Gallery of Ontario 2008/43 / Paul Kane. Death of Omoxesisisany or Big Snake, 1858 c – 1859. Embossed chromo lithograph on paper, 17.2 x 46.1 cm. Gift of Robert Hunter, 2006. © 2017 Art Gallery of Ontario 2006/29

 

The Entangled Gaze: Indigenous and European Views of Each Other was a two-day conference co-hosted by OCAD University and the Art Gallery of Ontario. The conference convened an international group of scholars and museum professionals from the fields of art history, anthropology, cultural studies and curatorial practice to explore the topic of how Indigenous and European artists have represented each other in historical art and visual culture. The conference builds on the ground-breaking work of Julius Lips, “The Savage Hits Back, or The White Man through Native Eyes” (1937), Nii Quarcoopome’s landmark exhibition “Through African Eyes: The European in African Art, 1500 to Present (2010) at the Detroit Institute of Art, and on the research of project lead Dr. Gerald McMaster, conducted over the past decade, into how historical Indigenous artists in North America have represented their Euro-American Others.

The goals of The Entangled Gaze were as follows:

  • To generate new knowledge of the media, methods and meanings of historical Indigenous and European representations of each other;
  • To develop innovative conceptual approaches to the study of Indigenous and Euro-North American art/histories, by drawing on Indigenous epistemologies and perspectives in order to generate scholarship outside the mainstream anthropological/art historical purview;
  • To share and develop new interdisciplinary methodologies for collecting, interpreting and disseminating knowledge on the diverse artistic histories of Indigenous and Euro-North American peoples;
  • To communicate this knowledge to our scholarly, professional and public audiences in relevant and accessible media;
  • To develop OCAD University’s Indigenous Visual Culture Research Centre as an international leader in collaborative research on the art/histories of Indigenous and Euro-North American peoples.

Drawing on a global archive of Indigenous and Euro-North American art and visual and material culture from international public collections, conference contributors will approach two key questions:

  • how do we represent people who are different from ourselves, and
  • what are the consequences or results that arise out of this representation?

For over a decade, Dr. McMaster has been gathering various types of information on how First Nations and Inuit artists depict Europeans or people of European ancestry. We are all, of course, familiar with European and North American artistic representations of First Nations and the Inuit; however, the reverse is not within the current artistic or public discourse. In effect, there is an unequal dialectical exchange. McMaster's course of research is intended to redress this inequality. In 2013-14 he examined 38 European collections, where much early North American material history is housed; since then, he remains the sole researcher with sustained interest in this particular subject matter. Dr. McMaster's research is grounded in the theory of the "reverse gaze," a conceptual approach he uses to promote Indigenous representations of Europeans as primary documents in the reconstruction of Canadian history.

Conference participants are international and interdisciplinary researchers, museum professionals, artists, and Indigenous Elders. As anthropologist Regna Darnell has pointed out, cross-cultural study of the Other is no longer the preserve of the discipline of anthropology. Drawing from perspectives in art/history, cultural studies, fine art and anthropology, The Entangled Gaze will also generate print and online publications from a range of disciplinary perspectives. Select papers will be published as peer-reviewed articles in a special issue of AbOriginal: Journal of Indigenous Studies and First Nations’ and First Peoples’ Cultures, for which primary applicant Dr. Gerald McMaster is an Editor.

Conference participants included: host Gerald McMaster; artists Kent Monkman, Bonnie Devine, Barry Ace, Rosalie Favel, Hulleah Tsinhnahjinnie, Embassy of Imagination, Lisa Myers; scholars Krista Ulujuk Zawadski, Rainer Hatoum, Kaitlin McCormick, Jonathan King, Nicole Perry, Monika Siebert, Christopher Green, Anna Brus, Markus Lindner, Rick Hill; and curators Wanda Nanibush, Nika Collison Jisgang, Kathryn Bunn-Marcuse, Nii Q. Quarcoopome, and Candace Greene.

SPEAKERS:

Kent Monkman, The Four Continents. Monkman’s major series “The Four Continents” reflected on the “painted voyage” from the Renaissance to Romanticism – a visual journey upon which Europeans projected their views of the world onto other continents. 

Gerald McMaster, Introduction. McMaster’s presentation was an overview of his research through the collecting relevant materials in the world’s museums, amassing the evidence needed to demonstrate that the character of the creative strategies with which Indigenous peoples documented Europeans amounts to a “reverse gaze.” 

Kaitlin McCormick presented the work of Tsimshian artist Frederick Alexcee (1853-1939) and how he chose to represent his community of Fort/Port Simpson through an examination of works which he created and sold to non-Indigenous people.

Anna Brus, Obstinate Objects: Native American Art as Seen by Julius Lips. Brus addressed the work of Julius Lips, who advanced a kaleidoscopic view of representations of the European worldwide, thus inverting the colonial gaze onto the “Other.” 

Nii Quarcoopome, Representation/Re-Presentation: Five Centuries of Changing African Depictions of the European ‘Other.’ Quarcoopome offered an historical review of this rich and complex visual record, and aims to illustrate shifting and conflicted African emotional responses to the European presence.

Barry Ace and Rosalie Favell, In conversation, Every.Now.Then: Reframing Nationhood. Ace in particular spoke about the Anishinaabe Maungwaudaus’s trip to Europe in the 19th century.

Justine Kohleal + Tak Pham, Virtual Indigenous Platform for Global Indigenous Initiative. They spoke about how the Indigenous Visual Culture Research Centre is embarking on the creation of a research and knowledge exchange that will link with local, national, and international universities, museums, galleries, and Indigenous communities.

Jonathan King, Beyond the Glazing: Aboriginal Artists Behind Glass No More. King spoke about artists from the Arctic and the Northwest coast, and how they have taken control not merely of narrative in art practice, but of traditional continuity in politics and self-presentation.

Krista Ulujuk-Zwadski, Stitching our Knowledge with Miqqutiit and Kakpiit. Ulujuk-Zwadski spoke about how Inuit art has a history of representing Inuit ways of life, beliefs and stories through an autoethnographic lens, and how the early Inuit gaze seldom represented “others” but was dominated by Inuit representations of ourselves.

Monika Siebert, Pocahontas Looks Back

Elder Jan Longboat, Turtle Clan of the Mohawk Nation, is an Elder, educator, writer, herbalist, cultural advocate, and visionary, having dedicated her life to the dissemination and learning of Indigenous language and culture. Elder Longboat talked about Mohawk ways of seeing.

Gary Sault, Anishinaabe Elder from Mississauga’s New Credit Nation. Elder Sault used various wampum belts to discuss Indigenous/European relations.

Rick Hill, Two Row Wampum. Hill spoke about how the people from the ship and the people from the canoe viewed each other as told through the oral history of the Two Row Wampum; and how Indigenous artists were more open and less biased that the western art that followed, using Iroquois hair combs and western art to illustrate.

Hulleah Tshinhnahjinnie, Visualizing Reciprocity. Tshinhnahjinnie presented the idea of how protocols enacted by Indigenous researchers, historians, and artists effects reciprocity, whereas western-based researchers, historians, and artists unaware of protocol as establishing relationships, tend to revert to utilizing research as a buttress of colonization.

Christopher T. Green, [House] Post Modern: Tlingit Responses to the ‘Modern’ Revival. Green discussed Tlingit artists Nathan Jackson and Jim Schoppert’s individual critiques of the Western modernist aesthetics defining the category of fine art, which Northwest Coast artists entered into in the 1960s and 70s.

Alexa Hatanaka and Patrick Thompson, Embassy of Imagination Artists Talk. Along with a number of youth from Kinngait, Cape Dorset, Hatanaka and Thompson spoke about how they achieve self-empowerment through creating collaborative projects in their community and public art projects by inserting Inuit youth voices in Southern Canadian city centres.

Bonnie Devine and Lisa Myers, In conversation, Every.Now.Then: Reframing Nationhood

Jisgang Nika Collison and Kathryn Bunn-Marcuse, Gud Gii AanaaGung: Look at One Another. Collison and Bunn-Marcuse spoke about how Haida artists during the 19th century documented their observations using voice and clever hands, often in life-like sculptures of Europeans and their exotic possessions, reflecting their complicated relationships with Euro-American settlers, colonial administrators, and visitors.

Rainer Hatoum, Revisiting Boas: Exploring Issues of the “Entangled Gaze” on the Basis of His Field Notes. Reflecting four years of deciphering and transcribing Franz Boas’ shorthand notes, Hatoum’s presentation lent fresh insights into Boas’s lifelong attempts to grasp “Indigenous Others” and their manifold artistic expressions, which sometimes reversed the gaze onto Europeans.

Candace Greene, Friends/Enemies; Partners/Competitors. Greene’s paper explored a small but important group of 19th century pictorial art from the Arikara and affiliated tribes as they engaged with Euro-Americans along the Missouri River.

Nicole Perry, German Cultural Appropriations of Indigeneity: ‘Indianer,’ Winnetou, and Indigenous Interventions. Perry’s paper explored how Kent Monkman engages with and challenges (German) colonial pasts and Euro-American tropes of the “Indianer” and the cultural appropriation of the Indigenous image, thus exemplifying contemporary Indigenous struggles through the lens of native survivance.

Markus Lindner, Buffalo Bill’s “Indians’ Gaze Back: Europe and Europeans in Arthur Amiotte’s Collages. Lindner focused Lakota artist Arthur Amiotte, who connects his family history – including that of his Austrian great-grandmother – with the general history of the Lakotas of the early reservation period.

FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT:
The Entangled Gaze Website
The Savage Hits Back Revisited
The Savage Hits Back Revisited review

 

This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

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Creator: 
Image of Paul Kane painting juxtaposed against an ivory Haida carving of a "Sea Captain Figure"
Wednesday, March 28, 2018 - 1:30pm
Lab Member: 
Gerald Mcmaster
Tak Pham

IoT Frameworks and Platforms

About IoT Frameworks and Platforms:

The Internet of Things refers to the addition of both computation and connectivity devices to existing objects in the environment (this includes human users in the environment, as well as other kinds of actors); allowing for new forms of communication and interaction. Making things “smarter” by embedding sensors, actuators, and a control unit (to makes sense of incoming information and corresponding actions) opens the door for adaptive ambient intelligent behaviors, which can be as simple as dynamic heating, lighting, and ventilation when a person enters a room, or when a user requests a remote-interaction with their home from an online service that turns on appliances in their environment. It can also be as complex as driver assistance for self-driving vehicles, and user attention modeling and interaction. The potential applications are many. This project investigates platforms, and architectures for the development of IoT systems that will be applied to future projects.

Click below to learn more about the Internet of Things and current ACE-Lab research:
IoT Interaction
IoT Assistants
IoT Privacy
IoT Collaboration

Read more about ACE Lab and the standard definitions of IoT here.

 

 

Creator: 
Blue Internet of Things Project Banner. Digital images of a planet, world map, and devices connected by glowing blue networks.
Friday, February 9, 2018 - 10:15am
Lab Member: 
Alexis Morris
Nadine Lessio

Art Intersection Meetup: Jeremy Bailey and Midi Onodera

Jeremy Bailey and Midi Onodera are two artists who are engaged with online networks as an intrinsic component of their work. They will present their work as part of the Mobile Experience Lab's  Art Intersection Meetup, a place for artists, moving image-makers, gamers and technologists who are experimenting with art-related digital content and how the moving image is presented in a connected world. Digital culture, social media and networks encourage new ways of storytelling, image making, idea sharing and collaboration. This Meetup celebrates artists and innovators who are embracing change leading the next wave of creativity.

About Jeremy Bailey:

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Throughout his career, the Toronto born artist Jeremy Bailey has explored software in a performative context. As Rhizome author Morgan Quaintance has written "Since the early noughties Bailey has ploughed a compelling, and often hilarious, road through the various developments of digital communications technologies. Ostensibly a satire on, and parody of, the practices and language of "new media," the jocose surface of Bailey’s work hides an incisive exploration of the critical intersection between video, computing, performance, and the body."

Specifically, Bailey’s works consist of all manner of performances that exist as videos, software, websites, inventions, institutions and ephemera all created and presented by his alter ego, Famous New Media Artist Jeremy Bailey.

Bailey studied at the University of Toronto from 1998 to 2002 and completed his Masters in Fine Art from Syracuse University in 2006. He has participated in residencies at the Banff Centre in Alberta Canada, FACT in Liverpool UK, and Quartier 21 in Vienna Austria and has been the subject of numerous solo and group exhibitions internationally.

For more information about his work visit jeremybailey.net and parinadimigallery.com/jeremy-bailey

About Midi Onodera:
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Midi Onodera is an award-winning Canadian filmmaker who has been directing, producing and writing films for over twenty years. She has over twenty-five independent short films to her credit as well as a theatrical feature film and several video shorts. Her recent works feature a collage of formats and mediums ranging from 16mm film to Hi8 video to digital video and “low end” digital toy formats such as a modified Nintendo Game Boy Camera, the Intel Mattel computer microscope, the Tyco and Trendmasters video cameras.

Onodera's films have been critically recognized and included in numerous exhibitions and screenings internationally. Some highlights include the Andy Warhol Museum, the International Festival of Documentary and Short Films, Bilbao, Spain; the Rotterdam International Film Festival; the Berlin International Film Festival; the National Gallery of Canada and a number of screenings at the Toronto International Film Festival.

For more information about her work visit midionodera.com

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Tuesday, January 17, 2017 - 6:30pm
Embed Video: 

CBC NEWSWORLD HOLODECK

Our aim is to pursue research in visualization and sonification of large portions of the CBC Newsworld corpus: the collected and digitized 24‐hour air‐check videos from the last 23 years (back to 1989), and, more generally, to enable spoken phrase and keyword search, information seeking, search and display and segment review within this corpus.

For the past 73 years, the CBC has given voice to our unique Canadian perspective on the world, producing a phenomenally rich, multimedia record of our social, political and cultural heritage. The CBC Newsworld archives consist of a very large and valuable collection of daily broadcast “air checks” (Newsworld content together with advertisements, etc.) recorded on VHS videotapes and DVDs.

Research Description:

These types of broadcast media were not designed for long‐term preservation or for reuse, so such material is difficult to access and subject to deterioration, as evidenced by major European initiatives for digital preservation of broadcast media and other cultural heritage materials, e.g., The Presto Project and The Digital Preservation Coalition. The need to develop effective tools to interact with and use such large multimedia collections is both an important research problem and a practical concern, as speech applications become ubiquitous, and the stores of recorded audio and associated video content grow exponentially. After thousands of years in which written

texts have been the primary means of transmitting stories and knowledge across cultures and generations, we are now at the point where spoken language can be recorded and passed on just as easily, by anyone with a computer, a cellphone or a digital recorder. Systems that can process, manage and retrieve spoken language content will be essential in the very near future (Goldman, et al, 2005).

This project has two inter‐connected goals. The first is practical: to digitize, visualize, and make available this collection of 20 years of Canadian news broadcasts through a state‐of‐ the‐art multimedia search and browsing system. This will ensure the preservation and use of this valuable material as well as opening it up as a source of data for researchers in fields as diverse as linguistics, journalism, communication, political science, art, and culture. The second goal is to use this real‐world project as an arena in which to conduct exploratory research and develop and test new technologies for visualization and spoken document and video retrieval. This project will leverage the collaborative and multi‐disciplinary approach of GRAND to draw upon knowledge from archival and information science, computational linguistics, journalism and computer science to develop innovative, open and user‐centred approaches to providing access to digital audio and video content.

Event Poster Image
Saturday, April 4, 2015 - 3:45pm
Lab Member: 
Dr. Martha Ladly
Gerald Penn
Cathy (Pin-Chun) Chen
Bryn A. Ludlow
Dr. Ana Jofre
Siavash Kazemian

The CBC Newsworld Holodeck

The CBC Newsworld Holodeck utilizes the GestureTek software system and Microsoft Kinect to sense the user’s gestures, enabling interaction with multi-screen video display. Video data communicates with the gesture-based library through an open-source C++ toolkit, which allows flexibility of video control, animation, and speed optimization. The Kinect searches for the user’s hand; upon detecting the gesture the system calls an action that corresponds to that gesture. The called action selects a video, plays that video, which initiates keywords to populate the screen, or hides them during video playback, enabling focused viewing.

Keyword/phrase selection takes the viewer directly to the selected video clip (enabled by natural language processing technologies), a novel interaction in video browsing, search and display. The Holodeck interface enables gestural interaction, and rich, context-aware browsing and search of the CBC Newsworld ‘big data’ video corpus.

Image of the CBC Newsworld Holodeck
Tuesday, May 7, 2013 - 3:00pm
Lab Member: 
Martha Ladly
Gerald Penn
Cathy Chen
Bryn A. Ludlow
Ana Jofre
Siavash Kazemian

ASTOUND Summit

The Astound Summit’s overarching goal was to provide content producers with opportunities to explore the importance of connecting with their audiences, viewers and users. The presentations, panel discussion and clinics were designed to introduce participants to the best ways to integrate audiences into the design process and leverage these relationships in order to secure financing and investment. The Summit was designed to provide participants with a comprehensive understanding of the role of audiences in relation to the development of their projects, as well as tools, frameworks and options to help them grow sustainable businesses.

At the heart of the Summit was a series of clinics designed to provide participants with a hands-on opportunity to play with audience engagement concepts and tools.

 

INTEGRATING PARTICIPATORY DESIGN TECHNIQUES
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These clinics provided participants with an opportunity to explore participatory design techniques (PDT) that can be used throughout the innovation lifecycle. These included: the Design Research Techniques Map, the PDT Card Deck and the concept of participatory design (audience engagement) goals. Participatory Design techniques are a broader category of tool sets that engage multiple stakeholders — including diverse audience sets, various partners (including investors), and internal team members. Design Research techniques typically focus on participatory design techniques that engage audiences in the project lifecycle.

With aids of templates and instructions, content producers were encouraged to consider the techniques that were most useful to their participatory design goals.

 

PROCESS
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This exercise helps content producers explore the ways in which participatory design techniques can help identify, understand and engage audiences or other stakeholders.

 

DOMAIN:

What stage in the development of your project are you in? We have organized a project life-cycle in 6 typical stages in 3 main phases: Discover (includes Define), Design (includes Concept), Implement (includes Evaluate). You may, however, use your own terms or designations here. 

 

SESSION:

WHAT: What is it?; What media-type or platforms are you designing for? 

WHERE: What markets, places or situations is it designed for?

WHEN: When is it being launched; is it designed for a particular time of day, event or activity? WHY: What need does it meet? What job does it perform? 

WHO: Who are your assumed users / customers / audience members?

 

GOALS:

What goals might using Participatory Design Techniques help you attain? Consider the following examples and try to answer the questions:

 

  • Identify: Do you want to know who your potential audiences are? DO you want to know what matters?
  • Understand: Are you looking to understand your customers or audience better? Do you how your idea will fit into their lives, solve pain-points, or enchant them?
  • Co-create: Are you trying to co-create with your customers or audiences, ie involve them in the development of your project? 
  • Acquire: Build or expand a base of fan or customers that you can leverage for marketing and promotional purposes? 
  • Retain: Is your audience dropping off? Do they download or access your offering but fail to follow through or return?

 

ANALYZE:

Use the grid to sort your PD technique cards against goals and stage of project.

 

 

4 smaller images demonstrating interactive content
Tuesday, August 12, 2014 - 5:30pm

FlOrKestra

The FlOrKestra is a proposal to create a new laptop orchestra that addresses issues of access and inclusivity in electronic music. The project aims to build a low-cost, accessible, inclusive ensemble, to develop new physical and software interfaces for personalized musical performance, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the construction. The research involves the examination and expansion of the technology of computer music with respect to its implicit assumptions and accidental exclusivity. The goal of the group is to integrate research and practice in order to illuminate these issues.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014 - 5:00pm

Multiplatform game distribution system for popular and experimental technologies (mgds-pet)

Transmedia gaming engages young people, creating an opportunity to bridge the experience between their virtual and physical lives. It is a popular but potentially costly undertaking.   Methods to facilitate authoring, publishing and distribution of cross platform distributed narratives have the potential to tap into a new gaming economy connecting TV, mobile and other platforms including entirely innovative wearable technologies. This proposed R&D collaboration will invent and deploy the 1) Multiplatform Game Distribution System for Popular and Experimental Technologies (MGDS-PET) – a new transmedia games development technology, as well as variety of experimental games interfaces and processes, including 2) Game Biometric Interfaces and 3) Wearable Game Technologies

These features will be developed, then applied to the commercial deployment of, Time Tremors – an internationally financed transmedia game currently in development.  Inherently cross platform in its conception, Time Tremors is a collection game in which players search for objects from history supposedly scattered throughout time and space, hidden, invisible to the human eye but detectable and collectable using a variety of mobile and online broadband technologies. The distribution of the Time Tremors game across delivery technologies, territories, time and geographical locations provides several challenges including incompatible hardware and infrastructure, varying software development environments, lack of standardized development tools and the need to distribute content across a diverse range of game platforms. MGDS-PETwill provide new technology to manage such production and integration. This project augments an existing transmedia production by enabling the addition of innovative new technology leveraging digital game and mobile broadband technologies including wearable, biosensor and location-based games with evolved game design metrics. The collaboration brings together research and industry partners from Canada and Brazil, with additional support, financing and market opportunities from the UK and Australia, to integrate diverse platforms creating a profitable, cohesive and global game experience. In addition to facilitating the release of Time Tremors, these new technologies will be commercialized as products in their own right. 

Keywords: 
Creator: 
Tuesday, May 13, 2014 - 5:00pm
Lab Member: 
Adam Tindale

SENSORY NEEDS IN PALLIATIVE CARE

How might design of space-based sensorial experiences* help to create a better palliative care environment? OCAD University and Princess Margaret Hospital have agreed to initiate a pilot research project that will serve as a starting point to establish, develop and grow an academic research partnership. With this first research undertaking, the intention is to explore the relationship between sensorial experiences and end-of-life care. SFI Student Oksana Kachur is currently interviewing patients, their family and care givers.

Creator: 
Advisor: 
Image of traditional assisted care room, with overlaid venn diagram of nursing care, psychosocial, Physical Environment and Atmosphere.
Saturday, June 23, 2012 - 6:45pm

STREET ACTIVATION OCADU

Third year students taking the Ambient Experience Design class were tasked with creating an outdoor way finding and identity system that aimed to encourage people to move between the GradEx sites and generally, to improve the ambience of the McCaul Street corridor. Traditionally, at the Gradex, people have spent time at 100 McCaul, and then left. Students exhibiting in the other buildings felt left out. We needed to create a visible, active and inclusive streetscape.

The students, under supervision of professor Job Rutgers, created animated concepts that helped to establish visual connections between the buildings and created beacon like functions to attract people. For example, existing planters along MCaul Street were transformed by Joycelyn and Danillo into  moments where people can huddle, sit, relax, and engage, in fun and interesting ways along the street landscape. Miranda and Roxanne designed spatial interventions that produced ‘Instagram moments’ for visitors to take pictures with themselves. The window of the OCADU shop was converted into a large light box, animating the street in day and night. Adam and Max supported the projects with graphic design ideas. Greg Moock helped to build the ideas into reality.

This class was an example of learning beyond the classroom. The opportunity to work with a real problem, some budget and getting to see your ideas through to implementation provided challenges, but also a steep learning curve on design. The initial ideas that arose in the classroom had to be translated into actionable designs and then built. This connection between idea and realization is valuable, but a lot of hard work to get it done. Perhaps the greatest learning is the need for resilience, of which the students showed to have ample!

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Sponsor(s): 
Photograph of red plexiglass letters reading "@60" with people in the background.
Tuesday, May 5, 2015 - 6:30pm